4K score = The 4K score is a blood test that can accurately identify the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. This type of test might be recommended after a biopsy or after a digital rectal examination, if abnormal cells are discovered.
Active surveillance = A form of treatment that involves keeping the patient's condition under strict monitoring, without administering any form of physical treatment. It's considered the course of action when the disease is in a controlled state, that doesn't pose a threat to the patient, and treatment such as surgery or radiation would cause more harm due to the side effects.
Agent Orange = Agent Orange is a type of herbicide which contains a dioxin toxin that affects male reproductive health. Men who are exposed to this toxin present more aggressive prostate cancer.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) = Androgen deprivation therapy is an antihormone therapy which consist of administering medication or undergoing surgery to reduce the supply of androgen hormones, such as testosterone, to the prostate. The hormones are known to fuel the growth of prostate cancer cells.
Androgens = Androgens are hormones that are important for many male characteristics and aspects of reproduction. A common androgen is testosterone.
Avodart = Avodart, known also as Dutasteride, is a medication used to treat the symptoms of of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with enlarged prostates. It reduces the size of the prostate and improves the flow of urine.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia = Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the benign enlargement of the prostate gland. The condition can cause acute urinary retention and kidney damage. BPH is not cancer and it does not lead to cancer.
Biopsy = Prostate biopsy is a procedure that involves removing a number of tissue samples from the prostate gland. It is used to detect prostate cancer if the results from the initial tests suggest that you may have prostate cancer.
Bladder tenesmus = Bladder tenesmus is a feeling of being unable to completely empty the bladder following urination. It is caused by urogenital diaphragm muscle spasms.
Brachytherapy = Brachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy through which radiation sources are placed inside the patient, near the prostate, to eliminate the cancer cells and shrink tumors. It represents an alternative to surgery for patients with localized prostate cancer. There are two types: High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy.
Cardura = Doxazosin mesylate - is a medication used to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate. It relaxes the muscles in the prostate and part of the bladder. This results in relieving the symptoms of BPH, such as difficulty in beginning the flow of urine, weak stream and the need to urinate frequently.
Catheter = The catheter represents a thin, flexible tube that is usually used for removing the bladder fluid. It is inserted into the body through a cavity, duct or vessel. The catheter provides continuous urinary drainage until the bladder is able to perform its normal function.
Computed tomography = A computed tomography is a procedure based on computerized X-ray imaging. The tomographic images contain more detailed information than conventional X-rays, as they make use of many combination images. Also, the three-dimensional images provided allow an easier identification and location of possible tumors or abnormalities.
Continence = Urinary continence represents the ability to control urination. Continence can be improved by strengthening the muscles of the pelvic floor. Also, incontinence can be prevented by adopting healthy diet and lifestyle habits.
Cyberknife = Cyberknife is a robotic system used to deliver non-invasive treatment in the form of radiosurgery, for cancerous and non-cancerous cells. It is a painless and non-invasive treatment which delivers highly focused doses of radiation from different angles in order to destroy tumors. The treatment is applied with sub-millimeter precision: it tracks and adjusts the radiation for the movement of the tumor and patient, during treatment. This prevents healthy organs and tissues to be exposed to radiation.
Cystoscope = A cystoscope is a thin tube with a camera at the end that is used for examining the urinary bladder during a cystoscopy.
Cystoscopy = Cystoscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the urinary bladder through the urethra, with the help of a cystoscope. There are multiple types of cystoscopy, depending on the reason for your procedure. The average cystoscopy takes about 5 to 10 minutes.
da Vinci robot = The da Vinci robot is designed to facilitate complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach. The robot is controlled by a surgeon who is operating a console. It provides superior visualization, enhanced dexterity and greater precision.
Digital rectal exam = Digital rectal exam (DRE) is used to look for abnormalities of the prostate. The prostate lies in front of the rectum and your doctor can check it by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum. This way, he can feel the prostate for hard, lumpy or abnormal areas.
Dihydrotestosterone = Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a male sex hormone.The enzyme 5α-reductase catalyzes the formation of DHT from testosterone in certain tissues, including the prostate gland. An imbalance between estrogen and testosterone increases DHT activity and thus encourages prostate cells to grow.
Dorsal vein complex = Control of dorsal vein complex (DVC) is very important to decrease blood loss. Ligation of the DVC before division is commonly performed to minimize blood loss during the apical dissection of open RPs (Radical prostatectomy).
Endopelvic fascia = The endopelvic fascia is part of the pelvic fascia which primarily covers the pelvic muscles. It refers to the parietal pelvic fascia in the region of the prostate, overlying the Levator ani muscle. Together with the visceral fascia, it supports and defines the structures in the pelvis.
Enlarged prostate = An enlarged prostate is often called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is not cancer and it does not raise your risk for prostate cancer. It is a common problem for men over 50. Prostate enlargement blocks the flow of urine through the urethra.
Erectile dysfunction = Erectile dysfunction (impotence) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Men with ED are unable to get and keep an erection firm enough for sex. It can be a cause for stress and relationship problems. Also, it can be a sign of an underlying bad health condition that needs treatment.
External beam radiation therapy = External beam radiation therapy (EBT) is a type of radiation therapy used for cancer treatment. High-energy rays, called beams, are delivered to the patient's tumor. The beams are generated outside the patient and are aimed into the tumor by a linear accelerator.
Flomax = Flomax (Tamsulosin) is a medication used to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate (BPH), by relaxing the muscles in the prostate and the bladder. It can help you manage your urinary symptoms such as difficulty in beginning the flow of urine, a weak stream and the need for frequent or urgent urination.
Gleason score = Gleason score is a grading system that evaluates the aggressiveness of prostate cancer based on a prostate biopsy. It helps establish a treatment strategy for men with advanced prostate cancer. The score ranges from 1 to 5, with a lower value signaling a healthy tissue and a higher one, an abnormal tissue. Most cancerous cells in a prostate tumor have different scores, which is why two grades are assigned for each patient and the Gleason score will be the sum of the two grades. If some of the cells have a scoring of 4 and other, a 5, the Gleason score will be written as 4+5=9. The higher the value, the more aggressive the prostate cancer.
Greenlight laser = Greenlight laser is a procedure used in the treatment of BPH. It provides rapid relief of symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate and a faster recovery. This therapy gives patients ease and comfort of urinary flow and minimal short-term side effects.
Hematuria = Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. There may be a gross hematuria, when you can easily see the blood in the urine, or microscopic hematuria, present when the urinary blood is visible only under a microscope.
High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) = HIFU is an innovative, painless and non-invasive technique, using high-frequency ultrasound energy to destroy cancerous cells in the prostate tissue. The doctor inserts a probe through the rectum and aims the waves at the affected tissue, with the help of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to tell exactly where the cancerous cells are. The treatment works best for patients with cancer contained in the prostate. It can sometimes be used if the cancer has just started to spread or is in the areas near the prostate. It does not work for advanced forms of prostate cancer.
Hormone therapy = Hormone therapy, also called androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), aims at reducing androgens (the male hormones) from fueling and growing the prostate cancer cells in the body. Preventing them from entering the cancerous cells can make the cancer shrink or grow much slower. Treatments that reduce androgen production by the testicles are the most commonly used hormone therapies for prostate cancer.
Immunotherapy = The process of using the body’s own immune system to combat disease.
Incontinence = Having urinary incontinence represents lacking self-control over the bladder. It is an often uncomfortable situation that can range from minor leaking to having a need so urgent and sudden that you can't get to the toilet on time. Usually, simple lifestyle changes or medical treatment can ease discomfort or stop urinary incontinence.
Laparoscopy = The laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgery, performed with a thin tube that has a camera attached to the tip, called a laparoscope. Instead of a large cut, as in traditional surgery, the laparoscopy requires only a small incision, leaving the patient with less pain and blood loss, smaller scars and less risk of infection.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging = MRI is used in radiology to recreate pictures of the human anatomy and the physiological processes in the body, in both health and disease. The procedure is fast, safe, non-invasive and does not use X-rays or ionizing radiation. The images are generated with the help of magnetic fields, magnetic field gradients and radio waves. The MRI is particularly well suited to image the non-bony parts or soft tissues of the body.
Metastasis = When cancer cells spread from the initial organ they started in, to different parts of the body, by travelling through the bloodstream or lymphatic tissue.
Minimally Invasive Surgery = Minimally Invasive Surgery is a safe alternative to open surgeries, which provides faster postoperative recovery. The most important benefits of this procedure are: small incisions, reduced blood loss and short hospital stay.
Mortality rate = Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general or because of a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population/unit of time.
Neurovascular bundle = A neurovascular bundle is a mixture of nerves, blood vessels (arteries, veins) and lymphatics that travel in the body. Bundles that travel with arteries are called deep neurovascular bundles, while those that do not have arteries travel within the superficial fascia (loose connective tissue under the skin) and are called superficial neurovascular bundles.
Oncology = Oncology is the study of cancer, including prevention, diagnosis and treatment. This branch of medicine has three main areas: medical, surgical and radiation.
Open Prostatectomy = Open prostatectomy represents the surgical removal of the prostate gland, through an incision made on the lower abdomen or between the rectum and the base of the penis. The recovery requires more time than robotic prostatectomy and is more invasive. A catheter will be inserted in the bladder to help irrigate it after surgery and another one will be inserted in the penis, to drain the urine.
PcA3 = PcA3 is the abbreviation for Prostate Cancer Antigen 3. It is a non-invasive test performed in order to detect the existence of prostate cancer. It is an accurate form of diagnosis which detects genetic material that is produced by the prostate.
PI-RADS = Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System is a structured reporting scheme for evaluating the prostate for prostate cancer based on an MRI scan. The result of the PI-RADS is a scoring from 1 to 5, that assesses the likelihood of the cancerous cells and the aggressiveness of the spread, with 1 being a highly unlikely presence of cancerous cells and 5, a significantly high chance of cancerous cells present.
Prolaris = Prolaris is a genetic test that uses the original biopsy prostate tissue to measure tumor cell growth. The test, along with the PSA and Gleason score, provides a clear outlook on the prostate cancer aggressiveness and it's the only test that can predict how much the disease will evolve in the next ten years. The results of the Prolaris test helps determine the right treatment path.
Proscar = Proscar is a medication used to treat BPH symptoms. It reduces the risks of urinary retention and determines the regression of the prostate tissue. Patients who take this type of medication are less likely to undergo prostatectomy or another surgical treatment such as TURP.
Prostate = The prostate is the exocrine gland of the male reproductive system. It secrets a prostatic fluid that composes the total fluid ejaculated (semen), along with sperm and fluid from the seminal vesicles. The muscles of the prostate forcefully press the semen into the urethra from where it is expelled during ejaculation.
Prostate exam = The prostate exam is the rectal examination of the prostate tissue. It is performed by a health provider in order to determine if the prostate gland presents any suspicious lumps or abnormal areas. It is recommended to have a prostate exam in order to diagnose the disease at an early stage.
Prostate Health Index = Prostate Health Index is a blood test for the detection of prostate cancer. Actually, it is a mathematical formula combining three tests into a single score. This way, it can determine the probability of prostate cancer. Due to its high specificity, the results of PHI can determine the best individualized patient-management decisions.
Prostate-Specific Antigen Test (PSA) = The PSA is a protein produced by the prostate's cells. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. A high level of PSA in the blood may be a sign of prostate cancer. This test is performed in order to determine the nature of prostate symptoms.
Prostatectomy = Prostatectomy refers to the surgical removal of the entire prostate gland or just part of it. It may be performed as a treatment for severe BPH symptoms as well as for prostate cancer. There are two main types of prostatectomies: Open (Simple) Prostatectomy and Radical Prostatectomy.
Prostavysion = Prostavysion is a personalized genetic test which examines the genetic status of the prostate gland. This test may be recommended to men diagnosed with prostate cancer after a biopsy.
Radiation = Radiation is one of the most common cancer treatments. Radiation Therapy is used as a local treatment aiming at damaging cancer cells, without harming the healthy cells. Radiation works at the DNA level, making small breaks inside the tumor cells in order to cause them to die.
Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (RALP) = RALP is a surgical treatment for prostate cancer. This procedure involves removing the prostate gland laparoscopically, with the aid of a 3 or 4-armed robot controlled by a surgeon sitting at a console. The surgeon can see every detail on a three-dimensional screen, magnified a lot more than the human eye capacity. This innovative procedure is precise, minimally invasive and results in a shorter recovery period. The robot's precision movements allows for a much higher degree of accuracy and control. Side effects such as urinary incontinence or sexual impotence have been proven to be of a lesser extent when patients undergo RALP, than other types of procedures.
Screening = Screening, in medicine, represents the identification of an unrecognized disease in an apparently healthy person. It is performed by means of tests, examinations or other procedures. Screening tests can determine the existence of a disease in its early stage when it is easy to treat.
SMART surgery = SMART surgery technique (Samadi Modified Advanced Robotic Technique) is a type of robotic-assisted prostatectomy performed by Dr. David Samadi. The robot is viewed as a tool that permits enhanced anatomic radical prostatectomy, by improving vision and allowing angles of dissection not possible with open or straight laparoscopic instruments. The procedure holds high rates of success, measured in complete removal of cancerous cells and recovery of urinary continence and sexual potency.
Staging of prostate cancer = Prostate Cancer Staging represents the prostate cancer risks' evaluation based on biopsy results. After a prostate cancer staging, it can be determined whether the strategy should be that of Active Surveillance or if it can be cured with the aid of local therapies such as surgery or radiation. There are two types of stagings:
Trans-perineal biopsy = A type of biopsy under anesthesia, in which a needle placed through the perineum (skin between the scrotum and anus) removes samples of tissue from the prostate, which are sent for analysis. It is possible that this type of biopsy discovers a prostate cancer that couldn't have been found with other tests.
Transrectal prostate biopsy (TRUS-bx) = The TRUS-bx is currently the most utilized biopsy technique worldwide (over 95% of biopsies use this procedure). An ultrasound probe is placed in the rectum to allow visualization of the prostate, then multiple needles are used to sample for cancer.
Transrectal ultrasound (TURS) = Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is a method of picturing the prostate through a sonogram. A probe that emits high-energy sound waves is inserted through the rectum. The sound waves bounce off internal tissues and form echoes that recreate a video image of the prostate gland. The method highlights important aspects of the normal and abnormal anatomy of the prostate. It is also called endorectal ultrasound, ERUS, and TRUS.
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) = TURP is a urological surgery used to treat BPH associated symptoms. It is an option for men with severe urinary problems that haven't responded to medication. It implies having a doctor insert a resectoscope through the tip of the penis and into the urethra. The enlarged prostate surrounds the urethra, which means the doctor has to trim excess prostate tissue in order to release blocked urine flow. The surgery is highly invasive and implies a higher risk of bleeding and of side effects such as impotence and urinary incontinence.
Trifecta = Trifecta is a system composed of three features: undetectable PSA, urinary continence and potency. Trifecta after radical prostatectomy is a post-operative method performed in order to measure the improvement rate of these three factors: PSA, urinary continence and potency.
Urethra = The urethra is the connection tube between the urinary bladder and the urinary meatus that transports the urine. Males use their urethra for both urination and ejaculation. In men, it is divided into 4 parts: pre-prostatic urethra, prostatic urethra, membranous urethra and spongy urethra. The prostatic urethra crosses the prostate gland and collects the prostatic fluid that contributes to the ejaculation.
Urethral stricture = The urethral stricture represents the narrowing of the urine flow's passageway, due to scar tissue. It can have serious consequences for the entire urinary tract, such as obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms that can lead to the impairment of the renal function. Urethral strictures appear as a result of diagnostic or therapeutic urological procedures, which appear more commonly in aging men.
Urinalysis = Urinalysis is a clinical test of urine. It is performed in order to detect urinary tract infections, kidney problems, liver problems or other metabolic conditions.
Urine cytology = Urine cytology is a test performed in order to detect cancerous or abnormal cells in urine. It can be used as a diagnosis method for urinary tract cancers. It may be recommended in case of hematuria.
Urology = Urology is the branch of medicine focused on the surgical and medical diseases of both male and female urinary-tract system. Also, it studies the male reproductive organs, as their are related to the male urinary-system.
UTIs = UTIs stands for Urinary Tract Infections. They can cause symptoms like: a persistent urge to urinate, frequent urination or blood in the urine. UTI is commonly treated with antibiotics.
Vesical tenesmus = Vesical tenesmus is a feeling of being unable to completely empty the bladder following urination. It is caused by urogenital diaphragm muscle spasms.
Watchful waiting = Watchful waiting or active surveillance refers to the close monitoring of cancer before therapy is used. If there is a change in the tests' results over time, the doctor may decide upon the proper treatment.